Magazine articles and news reports tout the benefits of eating "functional foods," which they claim can do everything from reduce cholesterol to prevent conditions like heart disease or cancer. At the grocery store, you'll find plenty of breakfast cereals, yogurts and nut butters with health benefits proclaimed on their packaging. Can these modified foods be considered functional foods? And what is a 'functional food', exactly?
To answer those questions, first, it's important to note that all foods are functional as they deliver physiological benefits like protein for muscle repair, carbohydrates for energy, or vitamins and minerals for cell function. But in the 1980s the Japanese government created a class of "functional foods" - conventional and modified foods that included additional health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Here in the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not have a regulatory category of functional foods. However, the Academy defines a functional food as: a food that provides additional health benefits that may reduce disease risk and/or promote good health.
Functional foods include:
Because there's no legal or governmental definition of what a functional food is, American consumers are left to evaluate a food's health claims on their own. "Health claims can be used as a marketing tool," says registered dietician Marisa Moore. "Pay more attention to the back of the box than to the front of it. If the package says it's a whole grain product, then whole grains should be the first ingredient because the ingredient list is organized by weight."
- Conventional foods such as grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts
- Modified foods such as yogurt, cereals, and orange juice
- Medical foods such as special formulations of foods and beverages for a certain health condition
- Foods for special dietary use such as infant formula and hypoallergenic foods
Another tricky area for consumers is food fortification - when labels claim that products include added vitamins and nutrients. "There are a lot of foods that now include omega-3 fatty acids." Moore says, "But you can make a better decision by choosing salmon. You have to eat a lot of fortified products to get the clinical response you'd get from eating salmon."
Moore suggests these five functional foods:
Cold-Water Fish (like Sardines and Salmon)
These protein-packed fish have high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, which can lower overall risk of heart disease, reduce joint pain, and improve brain development and function. "We should be eating about eight ounces of fish a week," says Moore. "But Americans only eat about three ounces."
They make a great snack, help you feel full, and can control blood sugar levels. Bonus: Nuts like cashews and almonds are high in magnesium, which can lower blood pressure, and almonds, pecans and walnuts can help lower cholesterol.
Whole Grains (like Barley)
It gets overshadowed by the health benefits of oatmeal, but barley delivers similar health benefits. It's high in soluble fiber, which most Americans lack in their diets; helps lower cholesterol; and assists with blood sugar control, making it a good choice for people with diabetes. So eat your oatmeal in the morning, then add barley to your soup at lunch.
Beans are another terrific source of soluble fiber; a diet high in fiber can help reduce the risk of colon, rectal and breast cancers. While canned beans are fine, look for those low in sodium. Moore recommends rinsing beans before use, which removes 40 percent of added sodium content.
Whether you pick strawberries, cranberries, blueberries, raspberries, or blackberries, berries in general are amazing functional foods. Not only are they low in calories, their anthocyanin pigments, which give them color, offer health promoting benefits. If you can't get fresh berries, frozen unsweetened berries make a fine alternative.
This article has been adapted from an article by Diana Burrell, a Boston-based freelance writer and recipe developer, that appeared on the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' website.